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中国第一本真正意义上的城市杂志,也是一本结合了深层问题和浅层表述、正统的官方话语和生动的民间叙事、面向未来的主题性媒体平台,致力于团结企业界和学术界,以及社会各领域的专家、志愿者和决策者,与政府部门合作,共同开展行动计划。

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《城市中国》27期--文化遗产--《汉声》:在聒噪时代续写《天工开物》  

2008-07-24 10:39:32|  分类: 内容选登 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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《汉声》:在聒噪时代续写《天工开物》
Echo: Continuation of Heavenly Creation in the Noisy Time
文/《城市中国》编辑部
Text/Urban China Editorial Office
    如果把中国的文艺复兴看作是这个泱泱大国在前现代文明和现代文明之间的曲折迂回,今天的文化遗产保护工作就是在两种文明的结构性冲突之中寻求共存的过程。然而,中国过去三十年的狂飙式发展,以单向度的经济诉求牺牲了社会、文化与生态的平衡。文化遗产的发掘与保存,在发展型政府的工作中被边缘化;原本应由政府承担的工作,很大程度上落在了院校、媒体、民间组织和个人身上。在这一大环境下,来自海峡彼岸的《汉声》杂志,力图以其来自民间的声音,树立民众的共识,影响政府的决策;同时以其精细的专业品质和执着的知识分子精神,成为中国民间文化保护领域最具公共价值的媒体平台。
    自1971年成立起,《汉声》杂志就一直致力抢救、保护和发扬中国民间传统文化,亲力奔走于民间,完成大量民间文化的收集和整理,拯救了数十种濒临失传的民间手工艺,以此建立起“中国民间文化基因库”,内容涉及民间文化、民间生活、民间信仰、民间文学、民间艺术等若干方面。《汉声》杂志对每一种民间文化不只从文化上寻根溯源,也详细记录了工艺制作过程,探讨工艺所代表的生活哲学与生活文化。《汉声》杂志以自身的传播力量,不仅在海内外推广、介绍中国丰富多彩的民间文化,而且还号召海内外的学者、专家以及普通人参与到拯救民间文化的运动中来,为“中华传统民间文化基因库”积蓄能量。140多期《汉声》杂志,几乎就是《天工开物》在当代的续本。它背后数十年如一日的编撰工作,是这个聒噪时代从现代化运动边缘发出的警世之声,令人肃然起敬。
    同为主题型媒体,作为晚辈的《城市中国》在发掘和阐述中国价值方面与《汉声》杂志可谓殊途同归。《汉声》主要回答的是“前现代文明的价值在现代文明中如何延续”的问题;而《城市中国》则从另一极展开,回答“现代文明的发展如何为前现代文明的延续留有余地”的问题。而在着手方式上,双方在基于专业背景的主题框架构建、基于一手材料的海量田野调查、基于多学科交叉的“百科全书”编辑理念、以及文献档案式的信息传达方式方面有颇多共通之处。本期《文化遗产》正是在两代媒体之间的这样一种对话。正如《汉声》杂志所一直坚信的:“中国传统民间文化基因库”是一座不只属于中国人,也属于全世界人类的宝库。只要大家有心,愿意共同继续在文化上携手努力,传统的智慧、美质和生命力将不会消失,一切珍贵的“传统文化基因”,也都将在继起的人类生活中重现,如此中国文化才能真正立足于世界文化之林。

 

惠山泥人
Huishan Clay Figurines

    从明末张岱《陶庵梦忆》的记载开始,江苏省无锡市的惠山泥人至少已有400年的历史;清朝以后,泥人的生产和销售达到了鼎盛时期。惠山泥人是用惠山脚下的泥土制成的。这种泥土不仅细腻韧糯,可塑性强,而且千而不裂,弯而不断。现在的惠山泥人,发展到用石膏制作,解决了惠山泥资源短缺的问题。惠山泥人可分为神佛像、粗货、细货三大类。神佛像多是民间寓意吉祥的传统神像,用于佛教信徒作供奉用;粗货大部分是儿童玩具,如阿福等;“手捏戏文”这一独特艺术品种,则是细货的主流。
     Huishan clay figurines in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province boast a history of 400 years at least, which date back to Ming dynasty and reached the peak during the Qing Dynasty. It is made from the black and sticky local clay under the foot of Hui Mountain which has great plasticity and can be preserved for a long time. Nowadays, gesso is introduced into figurines making in order to deal with the Hui Mountain clay deficiency. Huishan clay figurines can be divided into 3 categories: Buddha figurines for worship,toys for kids and dedicate figures based on traditional Chinese operas and the rich Chinese culture.

 

曹雪芹风筝谱
CAO Xueqin Kite Book
    古代流传下来介绍风筝工艺的著作不多,清代《红楼梦》作者曹雪芹为了帮助朋友而写下的《南鹞北鸢考工志》便是其中难得的作品,鲜为人知。这本书不仅谈中国风筝的历史和论述风筝艺术,还以歌诀方式讲解各类风筝的扎糊法和画法,并留下大量的图谱。曹雪芹以天为纸,风筝为画,将整个扎燕家族升上天空,也通过风筝艺术表达了他内心追求的人生美满意境。
     Since there are not so many books on kite making passing down from the ancient time, Record on Making Kite which was written by CAO Xueqin- the author of A Dream of Red Mansions- was valuable and barely known to the world. Not only did the history and art value of Chinese kite can be found in the book, but also the formulas put into verse which help to memorize the detailed process of making kite,leaving a great amount of illustrations as well. CAO Xueqin put the kite making into a new level and his pursuit and dreams were reflected in the kite as well.

 

陕西华县皮影
Shadow-Play in Hua County, Shannxi Province
    皮影,又称灯影,以在灯光照射下用兽皮刻制的人物隔亮布演戏而得名,是我国民间广为流传的傀儡戏之一。皮影戏发源于汉朝,唐以后流传民间。陕西华县(古华州)是陕西皮影的重要发源地之一。华县皮影成熟完备的体系在问世之初深受巫术,图腾崇拜文化的影响,在发展传承过程中又受华州地区繁荣多样的地方文化的影响,融入了儒、释、道思想和世俗生活,在受到社会底层劳动人民的关注后,最终形成了它独特的艺术形式和审美情趣,其民俗与信仰的关系确立了它在中国文化史上的地位。
     Shadow-Play, one of the popular puppet plays in China which is also called Lampplay,is a play with the characters made from fells and played behind a white curtain.Originated from Han dynasty, Shadow-play becomes popular among ordinary people in Tang dynasty. Hua County in Shannxi Province is one of the most important cradles of shadow-play where the shadow-play was influenced by totem and other local cultures around Huazhou area. After blending with the Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism as well as the common customs, shadow-play finally shaped up a special artistic form and an aesthetic taste.

夹缬
Clamp-resist Dyeing
    夹缬是在织物上印花染色的工艺,是中国最古老的一种印染艺术。夹缬始于秦汉时期,盛行于唐宋。元、明发展出工艺相对简单的油纸镂花印染技术之后,夹缬风行中原,在民间流行下来。夹缬在工艺典籍上没有留下记录,但在浙南一带现在还可以看到它的踪迹。1997年,《汉声》杂志在翔实记录下浙江省宜山镇苍南县一家民间夹缬工作坊的制作程序后,向作坊主订购了一千条夹缬,使几近关闭的夹缬作坊重新开工并吸引了国内外众多织染学者和研究者前来考察。
     Clamp-resist dyeing (known as Jiaxie) is an oldest dyeing technology in Chinese history which uses two symmetrically carved blocks to clamp the folded textile and to obtain the repeated pattern when dyed. Originated from Qin and Han dynasties, Clamp-resist dyeing became prosperous in Tang and Song dynasties. It was popular among the folk people in Yuan and Ming dynasties but no record on this technology left. Nowadays, it can only be found in the south Zhejiang province. In 1997, Echo magazine interviewed and made detailed record of a clampresist dyeing local workshop in Cangnan County, Zhejiang Province, ordering 1000 Jiaxia that kept the workshop running and attracting many researchers and visitors home and abroad.

 

陕北剪纸
Paper-cut in the North Shannxi Province
    剪纸是中国最古老的民间美术之一,它的历史至少可追朔到公元六世纪。早期的剪纸多见于丧葬、祭祀等仪式中,民间剪纸至今依然保存了丰富的支脉,陕北剪纸是其中重要的一脉。陕北地区曾是仰韶文化和龙山文化的中心地之一;元明清以后,这里的文化处于相对封闭和独立发展的状态,受中原文化及其它外来文化影响较小,其民间文化和民间艺术得以比较好地传承下来。许多地方逢年过节,婚丧嫁娶,乡民都会自备剪纸点缀墙壁、门窗、房柱、镜子等处,以表祈祷福寿,吉祥如意之意。
    
As one of the oldest folk art in China, paper-cut can date back to the 6th century. The earliest paper-cut appeared in the funeral and sacrifice ceremony, later, it developed into different branches with the North Shannxi branch is an important one. As one of the centers of Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture, North Shannxi endowed a prosperous and rich culture which was inherited without influence from other culture. The villagers will adhibite the paper-cuts on wall, windows, pillars and mirrors to prey for good luck and happiness.

 

蜡染
Batik
    蜡染是我国苗族古老而独特的手工绘染艺术,起源于秦汉,盛行于隋唐,与绞缬、夹缬并称为我国古代三大印花技艺。蜡染是用蜡刀蘸熔蜡绘花于布后以蓝靛浸染,既染去蜡,布面就呈现出蓝底白花或白底蓝花的多种图案。蜡染工艺在我国西南少数民族地区世代相传,中国贵州安顺是著名的蜡染之乡,这些地区继承和发扬了传统的蜡染工艺,蜡染也成为少数民族妇女生活中不可缺少的一门艺术。
    
Batik is an old and special dyeing technology of Miao nationality in China which dates back to Qin and Han dynasties and became prosperous in Sui and Tan dynasties. Batik, Jiaoxie and Jiaxie are regarded as three dying technologies in ancient China. Wax is used in batik to produce beautiful blue patterns. Batik is popular among the minority nationality areas in southwest China with Anshui in Guizhou province is the most famous one. Not only is batik inherited and carried forward in those areas,but also becomes an indispensable art for those Miao nationality women.

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